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 Vatican News:Watch the official trailer for Wim Wenders’ new film, Pope Francis - A Man of His Word. “Pope Francis - A Man of His Word,” is intended to be a personal journey with Pope Francis, rather than a biographical documentary about him. The pope’s ideas and his message are central to this documentary, which sets out to present his work of reform and his answers to today’s global questions. From his deep concern for the poor and wealth inequality, to his involvement in environmental issues and social justice, Pope Francis engages the audience face-to-face and calls for peace.

>The film goes on general release on 18 May. It is produced by Wim Wenders with Samantha Gandolfi Branca, Alessandro Lo Monaco (The World's Smallest Army) Andrea Gambetta, and David Rosier (The Salt of the Earth). The film is a production of Celestes Images, Vatican media. Solares Fondazione della Arti, PTS Art's Factory , Neue Road Movies, Fondazione Solares Suisse and Decia Films.

8 de Março de 2018

Cinco anos após a eleição do Papa Francisco (13 de Março de 2018) o Movimento Internacional Nós Somos Igreja e a European Network Church on the Move (EN) apelam ao Papa Francisco para que prossiga o processo reformista da Igreja Católica Romana e o intensifique significativamente. A eleição do primeiro Papa sul-americano, que iniciou o seu papado pedindo ao mundo para rezar por ele, inspirou incomensurável esperança nos corações de inúmeros católicos, especialmente muitos dos que se sentiram desiludidos com a incapacidade de a nossa Igreja concretizar as promessas do Concílio Vaticano II, considerado como potencialmente impulsionador de maior fidelidade ao Evangelho e de modernização da Igreja.

Actualmente, delegados e representantes de movimentos de Reforma da Igreja Católica e de Justiça Social transmitem ao Papa Francisco avaliações nitidamente contraditórias. O WAC-I e a EN louvam Francisco por afinar a sua vida em solidariedade com os pobres, promover o diálogo dentro e para além da Igreja, tentar refrear os abusos hierárquicos da riqueza e do poder eclesiástico e por falar de uma forma acessível a todos. Todavia, muitas das suas reformas têm enfrentado a resistência de membros da Igreja nomeados pelos dois papas anteriores, João Paulo II e Bento XVI. O WAC-I e a EN apelam aos cardeais, bispos e a todos os Católicos para que adoptem a visão de Francisco, que considera a Igreja como serva e guardiã.

Os lideres do WAC-I e da EN elogiam o Papa Francisco pela sua incessante defesa dos refugiados e migrantes, pelo seu vigoroso compromisso com a paz mundial fundada na justiça, pela sua proposta de não-violência em todos os conflitos, pela sua presença visível nas comunidades habitualmente marginalizadas e por optar pela simplicidade na sua vida pessoal. Aplaudem o uso racional da Terra promovido na sua encíclica Laudato Si. Reconhecem a sua coragem ao punir e destituir bispos e cardeais que ostentaram riqueza e ao ordenar aos líderes eclesiásticos que coloquem a ênfase na pastoral e não na burocracia. Valorizam o facto de o Papa ter elegido áreas sub-representadas do globo na nomeação de novos cardeais e realçado as competências pastorais na nomeação dos bispos. Apoiam as tentativas papais para entabular diálogo sobre questões relevantes para as famílias e os jovens, solicitando o contributo dos membros da Igreja na preparação destes Sínodos. Os grupos aplaudiram o empenho do Papa Francisco no reforço da obrigação de prestar contas em assuntos financeiros e o seu respeitoso entendimento com lideres e membros de outros credos.

Os grupos exprimiram igualmente a sua expressiva desilusão com a ausência de alterações substanciais em algumas áreas politicas e dogmáticas da Igreja e com a oposição que as tentativas reformistas do Papa enfrentaram no seio da Cúria. Sublinharam que o Povo de Deus se mantém excluído das tomadas de decisão em todos os níveis da Igreja e que o diálogo desejado pelo Papa Francisco não tem sido acatado a todos os níveis. Sublinharam igualmente que não tem havido suficientes alterações na desigualdade das mulheres na Igreja, apesar da nomeação de uma comissão de estudo reunida para analisar as questões do diaconado das mulheres. O Papa tem reafirmado a ênfase da Igreja na complementaridade, a qual prescreve papéis para mulheres e homens com base no género, reconhecendo apenas o casamento permanente e único de uma mulher e de um homem aberto à procriação e à educação dos filhos. Isto significa que as pessoas divorciadas, recasadas, em concubinato e LGBT, bem como as que recorrem à contracepção, que constroem famílias através de tecnologias de procriação medicamente assistida ou praticam abortos, são frequentemente excluídas da participação plena na Igreja. O Papa nomeou uma comissão para gerir os abusos sexuais cometidos por presbíteros da Igreja, mas a oposição ao seu trabalho por parte dos membros da Cúria impediu-a de realizar a sua missão. Um enérgico defensor e sobrevivente de abusos sexuais demitiu-se em protesto, permitiu-se que a autoridade da Comissão expirasse e, quando voltou a ser nomeada, incluía muitos membros considerados fracos e com menor probabilidade de desafiar a liderança eclesiástica. A Igreja deve abandonar os processos de condenação e excomunhão e mostrar mais respeito pelo pluralismo, especialmente em termos teológicos. A unidade cristã mantém-se bloqueada porque a nossa Igreja se recusa a aceitar a comunhão compartilhada. O WAC-I e a EN realçaram igualmente que, apesar de diversos convites, o Papa não se encontrou com líderes reformistas nem de redes renovadoras da Igreja a fim de dialogar sobre áreas de interesse comuns.

O Movimento Internacional Nós Somos Igreja e a European Network Church on the Move apelam para que o Papa Francisco renove o seu compromisso com as profundas reformas necessárias para libertar a Igreja Católica de tradições hierárquicas rígidas, com o maior envolvimento dos leigos e sobretudo das mulheres, e garanta que a Igreja vive verdadeiramente no espírito do Evangelho de Jesus num mundo em profunda turbulência. Rezamos para que este quinto aniversário assinale um tempo de renovação radical da nossa Igreja.

Contacto: Marianne Duddy-Burke, U.S.A., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +1 617 669 7810

Contacto: Raquel Mallavibarrena, Spain, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +34 649 332 654

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A European Network Church on the Move (EN) é uma convergência espontânea de organizações – associações, comunidades, grupos e redes informais – de Cristãos europeus, maioritariamente Católicos, os quais partilham

(1) a visão de uma Igreja profética, ecuménica, libertadora, tolerante, afectuosa, que não exclui nem discrimina e segue na peugada de Jesus, o Libertador.

e

(2) a vontade de trabalhar, respeitando a diversidade cultural e religiosa, em prol da paz, da justiça, dos direitos humanos e da democracia, permanecendo na Igreja Católica (cf. Declaração sobre os direitos e liberdades na Igreja Católica, Rede Europeia, 1994)

http://www.en-re.eu/index.php

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O Movimento Internacional Nós Somos Igreja (WAC-I) fundado em Roma em 1996, é uma coligação global de grupos reformistas nacionais da Igreja. Está empenhado na renovação da Igreja Católica Romana baseada no Concílio Vaticano II (1962-1965) e no espírito teológico que dele emana.

https://www.we-are-church.org

Somos Iglesia Internacional Red Europea Iglesia por la Libertad

Comunicado de prensa conjunto

8 de marzo de 2018

Cinco años tras la elección del Papa Francisco (13 de marzo 2018) Somos Iglesia Internacional (WAC-I) y la Red Europea Iglesia por la Libertad (EN) le piden al Papa Francisco que continúe el proceso de reforma de la Iglesia Católica Romana y que intensifique los cambios significativos.

La elección del primer Papa de América del Sur, que empezó su pontificado pidiendo a las personas de todo el mundo que rezasen por él, produjo grandes esperanzas en los corazones de muchos católicos, especialmente en los que se sintieron frustrados por el fracaso de nuestra iglesia en llevar a la práctica las promesas del Concilio Vaticano II, que se veía como un gran potencial para que la Iglesia fuera más fiel al Evangelio y para modernizar aspectos de ella.

Hoy, delegados y representantes de los movimientos de Reforma de la Iglesia Católica y de Justicia Social tienen decididamente valoraciones mezcladas sobre el Papa Francisco. WAC-I y EN elogian a Francisco por preconizar una vida en solidaridad con los pobres, por fomentar el diálogo dentro y fuera de la Iglesia, por el intento de frenar el abuso jerárquico de la riqueza y poder de la Iglesia, y por hablar de modo accesible a muchas personas. Sin embargo, muchas de sus reformas han sido confrontadas por cargos de la Iglesia nombrados por los papas anteriores, Juan Pablo II y Benedicto XVI. WAC-I y EN piden a los cardenales, obispos y a todos los católicos, que hagan suya la visión de Francisco de la Iglesia como servidora.

Los representantes de WAC-I y EN valoran positivamente al Papa Francisco por su incansable defensa de los refugiados y emigrantes, por su fuerte compromiso con la paz en el mundo basada en la justicia, por su propuesta de no violencia en la solución de los conflictos, su presencia visible entre las comunidades típicamente marginadas, y por haber optado por la sencillez en su vida personal. Aplauden la administración de la Tierra promovida en la encíclica de Francisco Laudato Si. Reconocen su coraje para reconvenir y rebajar a los obispos y cardenales que hacen ostentación de la riqueza y para instruir a los responsables eclesiásticos en que la prioridad es el cuidado pastoral más que la burocracia. Aprecian que el Papa se haya centrado en las zonas menos representadas del mundo para nombrar nuevos cardenales y que haya puesto énfasis en las capacidades pastorales a la hora de designar obispos. Apoyan los intentos del Papa para abrir el diálogo sobre temas de importancia para las familias y los jóvenes y por invitar a que todos los católicos puedan aportar en la preparación de estos dos sínodos. Los grupos celebran los esfuerzos del Papa Francisco para aumentar la rendición de cuentas en los asuntos financieros, y su compromiso respetuoso con representantes y miembros de otras confesiones religiosas.

Sin embargo los grupos han expresado una decepción significativa ante la escasez de cambios sustantivos en algunas áreas de la normativa y de la doctrina de la Iglesia, y sobre la oposición que han encontrado sus intentos de reforma en la Curia. Observan que el Pueblo de Dios sigue excluido de la toma de decisiones en todos los niveles de la Iglesia y la petición del Papa Francisco para que haya diálogo no ha sido atendida en todos los niveles. Igualmente constatan que no ha habido un movimiento significativo sobre la desigualdad de las mujeres en la Iglesia, a pesar del nombramiento de una comisión de estudio para considerar la cuestión del acceso de las mujeres al diaconado. El Papa ha mantenido el énfasis de la Iglesia en la complementariedad, que prescribe papeles para las mujeres y los hombres basados en el género, y en reconocer solamente el matrimonio permanente y exclusivo entre un hombre y una mujer, abierto a la procreación y a la educación de los hijos. Esto significa que las personas divorciadas, que han vuelto a casarse, que conviven, personas LGTBI, y aquellos que utilizan anticonceptivos, forman familias mediante técnicas de reproducción asistida, o que han abortado, son excluidas con frecuencia de la participación completa en la Iglesia. El Papa nombró una comisión para tratar los abusos cometidos por clérigos católicos pero la oposición a su trabajo por parte de miembros de la Curia, ha llevado a que haya sido incapaz de llevar a cabo su misión. Una firme defensora y víctima de abusos dimitió como protesta, se permitió que la autoridad de la Comisión expirase, y cuando ha vuelto a constituirse, ha sido con miembros que en muchos casos se caracterizan por ser más débiles u con menos probabilidad de que desafíen el liderazgo de los cargos eclesiásticos. La Iglesia debería levantar los procesos de condena y excomunión y mostrar más respeto al pluralismo, especialmente en teología. La unidad cristiana permanece bloqueada por que nuestra iglesia no acepta la comunión compartida. WAC-I y EN también observan que, a pesar de enviar varias invitaciones, el Papa no se ha reunido con representantes de los movimientos de reforma de la Iglesia y redes de renovación para concretar áreas de preocupación común.

Somos Iglesia Internacional y la Red Europea Iglesia por la Libertad, reclaman al Papa Francisco que renueve su compromiso con las reformas de gran alcance necesarias para liberar a la Iglesia Católica de su tradición jerárquica rígida, que se comprometa más con los laicos y especialmente con las mujeres, y que pueda garantizar que la Iglesia vive verdaderamente el Evangelio de Jesús en un mundo que está afectado por conflictos profundos y confusión. Pedimos que este quinto aniversario sea un signo de un tiempo de renovación radical de nuestra Iglesia.

Contacto: Marianne Duddy-Burke, U.S.A., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +1 617 669 7810

Contacto: Raquel Mallavibarrena, Spain, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +34 649 332 654

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La Red Europea Iglesia por la Libertad (EN) es una convergencia espontánea de organizaciones – asociaciones, comunidades, grupos informales y redes – de cristianos europeos que son en su mayoría católicos, comparten

(1) la idea de una Iglesia profética, ecuménica, liberadora, que apoya, que ama, que nunca excluye o discrimina y que sigue los pasos de Jesús el libertador.
y
(2) la voluntad de trabajar, respetando la diversidad cultural y religiosa, en favor de la paz, justiciar, libertad, derechos humanos y democracia, también dentro de la Iglesia (Cf Declaración de los derechos y libertades en la Iglesia Católica, Red Europea, 1994) .

http://www.en-re.eu/index.php

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Somos Iglesia Internacional (WAC-I), se fundó en Roma en 1996, es una coalición global de grupos nacionales de reforma de la Iglesia. Está comprometida en la renovación de la Iglesia Católica Romana basada en el Concilio Vaticano II (1962- 1965) y en el espíritu teológico desarrollado a partir de él.

https://www.we-are-church.org/

Keynote speech by Mary McAleese, President of Ireland 1997-2011, at the Voices of Faith conference, Rome, 8 March 2018

8 March 2018

The Israelites under Joshua’s command circled Jericho’s walls for seven days, blew trumpets and shouted to make the walls fall down. (cf. Joshua 6:1-20). We don’t have trumpets but we have voices, voices of faith and we are here to shout, to bring down our Church’s walls of mysogyny. We have been circling these walls for 55 years since John XXIII’s encyclical Pacem in Terris first pointed to the advancement of women as one of the most important “signs of the times”.

“they are demanding both in domestic and in public life the rights and duties which belong to them as human persons” [1].[…] The longstanding inferiority complex of certain classes because of their economic and social status, sex, or position in the State, and the corresponding superiority complex of other classes, is rapidly becoming a thing of the past[2].

At the Second Vatican Council Archbishop Paul Hallinan of Atlanta, warned the bishops to stop perpetuating “the secondary place accorded to women in the Church of the 20th century” and to avoid the Church being a “late-comer in [their] social, political and economic development”[3]. The Council’s decree Apostolicam Actuositatem said it was important that women“participate more widely […] in the various sectors of the Church’s apostolate”[4]. The Council’s pastoral constitution Gaudium et Spes said the elimination of discrimination based on gender was a priority[5]. Paul VI even commissioned a study on women in Church and Society[6]. Surely we thought then, the post-Conciliar Church was on the way to full equality for its 600 million female members. And yes-it is true that since the Council new roles and jobs, have opened up to the laity including women but these have simply marginally increased the visibility of women in subordinate roles, including in the Curia, but they have added nothing to their decision-making power or their voice. Remarkably since the Council, roles which were specifically designated as suitable for the laity have been deliberately closed to women. The stable roles of acolyte and lector[7] and the permanent deaconate[8] have been opened only to lay men. Why? Both laymen and women can be temporary altar servers but bishops are allowed to ban females and where they permit them in their dioceses individual pastors can ban them in their parishes[9]. Why?

Back in 1976 we were told that the Church does not consider herself authorized to admit women to priestly ordination[10]. This has locked women out of any significant role in the Church’s leadership, doctrinal development and authority structure since these have historically been reserved to or filtered through ordained men. Yet in divine justice the very fact of the permanent exclusion of women from priesthood and all its consequential exclusions, should have provoked the Church hierarchy to find innovative and transparent ways of including women’s voices as of right and not in trickles of tokenism by tapping, in the divinely instituted College of Bishops and in the man made entities such as the College of Cardinals, the Synod of Bishops and episcopal conferences, in all the places where the faith is shaped by decision and dogma and doctrine. Just imagine this normative scenario- Pope Francis calls a Synod on the role of Women in the Church and 350 male celibates advise the Pope on what women really want! That is how ludicrous our Church has become. How long can the hierarchy sustain the credibility of a God who wants things this way, who wants a Church where women are invisible and voiceless in Church leadership, legal and doctrinal discernment and decision-making?

It was here in this very hall in 1995 that Irish Jesuit theologian, Fr. Gerry O’Hanlon put his finger on the underpinning systemic problem when he steered Decree 14[11] through the Jesuits 34th General Congregation. It is a forgotten document but today we will dust it down and use it to challenge a Jesuit Pope, a reforming Pope, to real, practical action on behalf of women in the Catholic Church.

Decree 14 says:

We have been part of a civil and ecclesial tradition that has offended against women. And, like many men, we have a tendency to convince ourselves that there is no problem. However unwittingly, we have often contributed to a form of clericalism which has reinforced male domination with an ostensibly divine sanction. By making this declaration we wish to react personally and collectively, and do what we can to change this regrettable situation.

“The regrettable situation” arises because the Catholic Church has long since been a primary global carrier of the virus of misogyny. It has never sought a cure though a cure is freely available. Its name is “equality”

Down the 2000 year highway of Christian history came the ethereal divine beauty of the Nativity, the cruel sacrifice of the Crucifixion, the Hallelujah of the Resurrection and the rallying cry of the great commandment to love one another. But down that same highway came man-made toxins such as misogyny and homophobia to say nothing of anti-semitism with their legacy of damaged and wasted lives and deeply embedded institutional dysfunction.

The laws and cultures of many nations and faith systems were also historically deeply patriarchal and excluding of women; some still are, but today the Catholic Church lags noticeably behind the world’s advanced nations in the elimination of discrimination against women. Worse still, because it is the “pulpit of the world” to quote Ban Ki Moon[12] its overt clerical patriarchalism acts as a powerful brake on dismantling the architecture of misogyny wherever it is found. There is an irony here, for education has been crucial to the advancement of women and for many of us, the education which liberated us was provided by the Church’s frontline workers clerical and lay, who have done so much to lift men and women out of poverty and powerlessness and give them access to opportunity. Yet paradoxically it is the questioning voices of educated Catholic women and the courageous men who support them, which the Church hierarchy simply cannot cope with and scorns rather than engaging in dialogue. The Church which regularly criticizes the secular world for its failure to deliver on human rights has almost no culture of critiquing itself. It has a hostility to internal criticism which fosters blinkered servility and which borders on institutional idolatry.

Today we challenge Pope Francis to develop a credible strategy for the inclusion of women as equals throughout the Church’s root and branch infrastructure, including its decision-making. A strategy with targets, pathways and outcomes regularly and independently audited Failure to include women as equals has deprived the Church of fresh and innovative discernment; it has consigned it to recycled thinking among a hermetically sealed cosy male clerical elite flattered and rarely challenged by those tapped for jobs in secret and closed processes. It has kept Christ out and bigotry in. It has left the Church flapping about awkwardly on one wing when God gave it two. We are entitled to hold our Church leaders to account for this and other egregious abuses of institutional power and we will insist on our right to do so no matter how many official doors are closed to us.

At the start of his papacy Pope Francis said “We need to create still broader opportunities for a more incisive female presence in the Church”[13] words a Church scholar described as evidence of Francis’ “magnanimity”[14]. Let us be clear, women’s right to equality in the Church arises organically from divine justice. It should not depend on ad hoc papal benevolence.

Pope Francis described female theologians as the “strawberries on the cake”[15]. He was wrong. Women are the leaven in the cake. They are the primary handers on of the faith to their children. In the Western world the Church’s cake is not rising, the baton of faith is dropping. Women are walking away from the Catholic Church in droves, for those who are expected to be key influencers in their children’s faith formation have no opportunity to be key influencers in the formation of the Catholic faith. That is no longer acceptable. Just four months ago the Archbishop of Dublin Diarmuid Martin felt compelled to remark that “the low standing of women in the Catholic Church is the most significant reason for the feeling of alienation towards it in Ireland today”[16].

Yet Pope Francis has said that “women are more important than men because the Church is a woman”[17]. Holy Father, why not ask women if they feel more important than men? I suspect many will answer that they experience the Church as a male bastion of patronizing platitudes to which Pope Francis has added his quota.

John Paul II has written of the ‘mystery of women’[18]. Talk to us as equals and we will not be a mystery! Francis has said a “deeper theology of women”[19] is needed. God knows it would be hard to find a more shallow theology of women than the misogyny dressed up as theology[20] which the magisterium currently hides behind.

And all the time a deeper theology is staring us in the face. It does not require much digging to find it. Just look to Christ. John Paul II pointed out that:

‘we are heirs to a history which has conditioned us to a remarkable extent. In every time and place, this conditioning has been an obstacle to the progress of women. […] Transcending the established norms of his own culture, Jesus treated women with openness, respect, acceptance and tenderness….As we look to Christ…. it is natural to ask ourselves: how much of his message has been heard and acted upon?’

Women are best qualified to answer that question but we are left to talk among ourselves. No Church leader bothers to turn up not just because we do not matter to them but because their priestly formation prepares them to resist treating us as true equals.

Back in this hall in 1995 the Jesuit Congregation asked God for the grace of conversion from a patriarchal Church to a Church of equals; a Church where women truly matter not on terms designed by men for a patriarchal Church but on terms which make Christ matter. Only such a Church of equals is worthy of Christ. Only such a Church can credibly make Christ matter. The time for that Church is now, Pope Francis. The time for change is now.

References

[1] John XXIII encyclical Pacem in terris, 11 April 1963, n. 41.

[2] Ibid. n. 43

[3] Cf. Fr. P. Jordan O.S.B., NCWC News Rome correspondent «Changes proposed in role of women in the Church» posted 12 October 1965. Cf. https://vaticaniiat50.wordpress.com /2015/10/12/ changes-proposed-in-role-of-women-in-the-church/

[4] Second Vatican Council, Decree Apostolicam Actuositatem, 18 November 1965, n. 9 in AAS58 (1966), 846-.

[5] Cf. Second Vatican Council, Pastoral Constitution Gaudium et Spes, 7 December 1965, n. 29 in AAS 58 (1966), 1048-1049.

[6] It reported in 1976.

[7] 1983 Code of Canon Law, can. 230 §1. Cf. Paul VI, apostolic letter, Ministeria Quaedam, 15 August 1972, n. 2-4; 7, in AAS 64 (1972) 529-534. Formerly called the minor orders of acolyte and lector, they are: henceforth to be called ministries. Ministries may be assigned to lay Christians; hence they are no longer to be considered as reserved to candidates for the sacrament of orders. […] In accordance with the ancient tradition of the Church, institution to the ministries of reader and acolyte is reserved to men.

[8] 1983 Code of Canon Law, can. 1031 §2. In 2016 Pope Francis set up a Commission to look at the question of ordaining women to the Diaconate. The report is believed to have been on his desk for a year as of March 2018.

[9] Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, letter Concerning the use of female altar servers, 27 July 2001.

[10] Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, declaration Inter Insigniores, On the question of the ordination of women to the ministerial priesthood, 15 October 15 1976.

[11] Written with the help among others of two Irish laywomen, Cathy Molloy and Edel O’Kennedy. For the background to the Decree cf. M.J. Heydt, «Solving the Mystery of Decree 14: Jesuits and the situation of women in Church and civil society» http://www.conversationsmagazine.org/web-features/2015/12/27/solving-the-mystery-of-decree-14-jesuits-and-the-situation-of-women-in-church-and-civil-society

[12] Per UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon in his opening introduction at the UNGA Seventieth Session, 25 September 2015, UN Doc A/70/PV.3, 1.

[13] Francis, apostolic exhortation Evangelii Gaudium, 24 November 2013, n. 103 in AAS 105 (2013) 1019-1137. Cf. Francis interview with Fr. A. Spadaro SJ for America magazine in which he repeated these words, 30 September 2013 (as amended online).

[14] P. Zagano, «What the Pope really said», NCRonline 25 September 2013 https:// www.ncronline.org/blogs/just-catholic/what-pope-really-said.

[15] Francis, Address to the International Theological Commission, 5 December 2014. Cf. H. Roberts «Women theologians are ‘the strawberry on the cake, says Pope», The Tablet 11 December 2014.

[16] From a talk entitled “The church in Dublin: where will it be in 10 years’ time?” at St Mary’s Church, Haddington Road, as reported in the Irish Times, November 16 2017.

[17] Response of Pope Francis to a question from a journalist: “Will we one day see women priests in the Catholic Church?” on papal plane returning to Rome from the United States, Sept. 29, 2015. Cf. https://www.ncr online.org/blogs/francis-chronicles/popes-quotes-theology-women

[18] John Paul II, apostolic letter, Mulieris Dignitatem, n. 15 August 1988 in AAS 80 (1988) 1653-1729.

[19] Interview with journalists on board plane on way to Rio de Janeiro 22 July 2013 cf. John Allen «The Pope on Homosexuals. Who am I to judge?», NCRonline https://www.ncronline.org/blogs/ncr-today/pope-homosexuals-who-am-i-judge

[20] Cf. Manfred Hauke, Women in the priesthood. A Systematic Analysis in the Light of the Order of Creation and Redemption, Ignatius Press, 1988.